Kantian Grace as Ethical Gymnastics

Dennis Vanden Auweele


Kant’s concept of grace in Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason is a difficult topic, exegetically speaking. Obviously enough, Kant subscribes positively to a notion of divine assistance. This appears awkward given his rationalist ethics rooted in personal autonomy. This has given cause to interpreters of Kant’s philosophy of religion – both early commentators and today – to read Kant’s account of grace is uniquely rationalist. This would make grace a rational expectation given personal commitment to good works. The argument of this paper is that grace is a hyperrationalist element in Kant’s practical philosophy because of the potentially problematic consequences of Kant’s views of human nature. Human nature is namely not particularly prone to be responsive to the rational moral law and therefore requires a number of pedagogical tools that facilitate moral agency.

Palabras clave

Grace; Irrationalism; Pedagogy; Pessimism

Texto completo:



Barth, K. (1969), Protestant Thought from Rousseau to Ritschl, transl. B. Cozens, Simon and Schuster, New York.

Bohatec, J. (1966), Religionsphilosophie Kants in der 'Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft', Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hildesheim.

Bruch, J. (1968), La philosophie religieuse de Kant, Éditions Montaigne, Aubier.

Byrne, P. (2007), Kant on God, Ashgate, Aldershot.

Clewis, R. (2009), The Kantian Sublime and the Revelation of Freedom, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Crites, S. (2012), "Three Types of Speculative Religion", edited by Allen Wood and Songsuk Hahn, The Cambridge History of Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (1790-1870), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.545-569.

Firestone, C. and Nathan Jacobs (2008), In Defense of Kant's Religion, Indiana University Press, Indianapolis.

Hare, J. (1996), The Moral Gap: Kantian Ethics, Human Limits, and Divine Assistance, Oxford University Press, New York.

Hegel, G.W.F. (2007), Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion: Introduction and The Concept of Religion, edited by Peter Hodgson and Translated by R.F. Brown, P.C. Hodgson and J.M. Stewart, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Kant, I. (1900 ff.), Gesammelte Schriften, edited by Bd. 1-22 Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bd. 23 Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, ab Bd. 24 Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Verlag Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

Kant, I. (1996), Practical Philosophy. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, edited by Paul Guyer and Allen Wood, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kant, I. (1996), Religion and Rational Theology. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, edited by Allen Wood and George di Giovanni, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kant, I. (2011), Anthropology, History, and Education. Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, edited by Robert Louden and Gunter Zöller, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Louden, R. (2000), Kant's Impure Ethics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mariña, J. (1997), "Kant on Grace: A Reply to His Critics", Religious Studies, no. 33, pp. 379–400.

Michalson, G. (1979), The Historical Dimensions of a Rational Faith. The Role of History in Kant's Religious Thought, University Press of America, Washington.

Michalson, G. (1990), Fallen Freedom. Kant on Radical Evil and Moral Regeneration, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Michalson, G. (1999), Kant and the Problem of God, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Palmquist, S. (2000), Kant's Critical Religion. Volume Two of Kant's System of Perspectives, Ashgate, Aldershot.

Palmquist, S. (2010), "Kant's Ethics of Grace: Perspectival Solutions to the Moral Difficulties with Divine Assistance", The Journal of Religion, no. 90, pp. 530–553.

Palmquist, S. (2012), "Could Kant's Jesus be God?", International Philosophical Quarterly, no. 52, pp. 421-437.

Pasternack, L. (2012), "Kant on the Debt of Sin", Faith and Philosophy, no. 29, pp. 30-52.

Pasternack, L. (2014), Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: An Interpretation and Defense, Routledge, London.

Pasternack, L. (2017), "The 'Two Experiments' of Kant's Religion: Dismantling the Conundrum", Kantian Review, no. 22, pp. 107-131.

Reardon, B. (1988), Kant as Philosophical Theologian, Macmillan Press, London.

Sala, G. (2000), Die Christologie in Kants 'Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft', Gustav-Siewerth-Akademie, Weilheim-Bierbronnen.

Schopenhauer, A. (2011), The World as Will and Representation. Volume 2, translated by David Carus and Richard Aquila, Pearson Publishing, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Stephen Palmquist, 'Could Kant's Jesus be God?". In: International Philosophical Quarterly 52 (2012) 421-437.

Vanden Auweele, D. (2013), "The Lutheran Influence on Kant's Depraved Will", International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, no. 73, pp. 117-134.

Vanden Auweele, D. (2014), "For the Love of God: Kant on Grace", International Philosophical Quarterly, no. 54, pp. 175-190.

Vanden Auweele, D. (2017), The Kantian Foundation of Schopenhauer's Pessimism, Routledge, New York..

Ward, K. (1972), The Development of Kant's View of Ethics, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Wilson, J. and George Kelling (1982), "Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety", The Atlantic march 1982: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/304465/. Retrieved on March 7th, 2017.

Wood, A. (1970), Kant's Moral Religion, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Zachhuber, J. (2013), Theology as Science in Nineteenth-Century Germany: From F C Baur to Ernst Troeltsch, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1095827

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.
Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para realizar análisis de uso y de medición de nuestra web para mejorar nuestros servicios. Si continua navegando, consideramos que acepta su uso.

Creative Commons by-nc 3.0 Logo

ISSN: 2386-7655

URL: http://con-textoskantianos.net

  Scimago Journal & Country Rankscopus logo


DOAJ LogoErih Plus LogoCitefactor logoredib Logo

LatIndex LogoISOC Logo MIAR Logo
MLA LogoZenodo Logo
ESCI LogoEBSCO LOGOWeb of Science